Tips on How to Avail of Funeral Services

Funeral-ServicesEvery year, about 3 million Americans arrange funerals for their departed friends and members of the family. Someday, you could be one of those people who will arrange these services as well. Since funerals cost thousands of dollars, it’s essential to be aware of the things you need to know in availing funeral services.

If you are residing in the US, federal laws will help you decide when it comes to choosing the right funeral service. These laws also allow you to check out the actual cost of a particular item you’re planning to avail, whether in person or over the phone.

When arranging a funeral service, make sure that your funeral provider will give you an actual price list of their available services. Take note that you have the option to get their package or make separate purchases.

 

Below are some of the tips that can help you make a successful funeral arrangement for your deceased loved ones:

  • Inquire over the phone. This can help you compare prices of different funeral providers without the hassle of personally going to their offices. When calling funeral providers, ask about the terms, conditions and their available packages.
  • The total price coming from funeral providers must contain the detailed cost of each service and item included in the package. This will help you cross out the ones you don’t need and modify the ones you can afford. Embalming and caskets are some of the things that are included in the package.
  • Your funeral provider, as required by the law, should never fail to give information about embalming. For instance, they should disclose that you may opt to go for immediate burial or direct cremation if you don’t want embalming.
  • Under the law, funeral providers are also required to disclose charges for cash advance items in writing. These cash advance items are services or goods that your preferred funeral provider paid on your behalf. Examples of these include obituary notices, flowers, clergy honoraria and pallbearers. Some providers may add service fee for these items while some give out refunds or discounts. All of these should be documented and presented to you.
  • You have the option to cremate the body of the deceased or go for immediate burial. Cremation involves the burning of the dead body to turn it into ashes and place it inside an urn while immediate burial involves conducting a wake where the dead body is open for public viewing.

When you go for cremation as part of the funeral services, you will be given an option to choose between an unfinished wood box and a cheap alternative container for the cremated body. Both are made from different materials but choosing either one of them could lower the cost of funeral because they are much cheaper than the traditional caskets.

Funeral Services

  • You are always entitled to drop the services or goods that you do not want in the package. You may also refuse to pay certain fees that serve as a condition for availing your preferred services and products. Under the law, your preferred funeral provider should not charge fees to the caskets you bought outside their package when you avail their services.
  • After selecting your choice of funeral items and services to be included in the package, your preferred funeral provider must provide an itemized list of the total cost together with any other legal, crematory or cemetery requirements. This also includes “good faith estimates” or the unknown cost of certain cash advance items and services.
  • Think ahead. Most people decide about getting funeral services when they are in grief or under time pressure. Thinking ahead lets you make an informed and solicited decisions about funeral arrangements for your departed loved ones. It also allows you to have more time in terms of comparing prices and services of one funeral provider from the other.

This is also the best time to decide if the deceased body could be donated to educational or medical institutions. Ask other relatives and family members if the deceased has a particular wish that should be granted before the funeral takes place like donating his eyes to a blind person or his heart to a dying patient.

Author Bio

Funeral arrangements are indeed stressful. By following the above-mentioned tips on how to pick funeral services and , you are sure that it’s going to be a convenient yet successful ceremony for your departed loved ones.

 

The Step-by-Step Manufacturing of a Printed Circuit Board

A printed circuit board comes in different types. It could be double-sided or single-sided. It could be flexible or rigid. It could also be multilayered or single layered. Whatever the type is, the manufacturing process is the same. After designing the board, manufacturers perform many processes before they ship the circuit board to the assembly team. In this article, you will learn about the steps in the PCB manufacturing process.

Selection Process

The manufacturing process begins with the selection of the inner layer or the laminate. The thickness varies and measures below half an inch. The number of inner layers depends on the design schematics. For a single layered design, the board consists of one inner layer. On the other hand, a multilayered board can contain up to 12 inner layers.

PCB

A board typically consists of a copper foil, its inner layers, and a prepreg. The most popular prepreg material is FR4. This FR4 material acts as glue between the copper foil and the inner layer.

Laminating the layers

The copper foil, inner layers and prepreg are heat-pressurized to create a laminate. After the process, the manufacturers produce a rigid board ready for the next steps.

 

Resist Coating

The inner layers are coated with dry-film. This coating protects the inner layers from chemicals during the etch processing.

Circuit Printing

This step in the manufacturing of the printed circuit board comprises of five phases to complete. The first phase is the placing of the artwork or the layout of the circuit. This artwork is printed on a resist film that consists of two basic layers. One layer is negative while the other is positive. Both layers contain copper traces.

The second phase mainly involves exposing the layout to ultraviolet light. The negative layer allows the light to pass through and harden copper traces on the film.

The third phase focuses on removing the areas that are not hardened during the layout exposure. The fourth phase is etching the inner layer. It removes the film that does not contain the copper pattern. The last phase is about removing the resist film so that the copper patterns are completely exposed and usable.
To enhance the adhesion of the copper patterns, manufacturers often treat the circuit board with chemical solutions, giving the patterns a dark brown hue. Other chemicals may change the color of the copper patterns.

Inspection

Print-Circuit-Baord

The standard method is automated optical inspection or AOI. This step inspects the printed circuit board for any error.
When the inspection team finds errors, they communicates such errors to the design team and other appropriate departments. If possible, they correct the errors accordingly and document such errors for future references.
Afterwards, the board is forwarded to the assembly team for component placement.

Drilling and deburring

The board is drilled with holes as per design requirements. For the through-the-hole assembly, it is a pre-requisite before the board is transferred to the assembly department. The deburring step removes raised edges after the drilling process.

Outer Layer Expose and Develop

The copper patterns are cured with tin strips, while the exposed panels are protected with other resist film. The final chemical curing involves etching the parts that are not cured with a tin strip. In this step, manufacturers are very careful since overexposure to the chemicals may strip off the copper patterns.

Silkscreen printing

This step is labeling the board with the necessary nomenclature and other important legends. It also includes the prepping of the board for solder mask.

Assembly

This step involves the placement of electronic components on the board. There are two known methods in the assembly stage. The first and oldest is through-the-hole assembly and the latest is the surface mounting assembly.

Through-the-hole assembly requires pre-drilling of holes on the board. This means, the board goes through an additional step of drilling before assembly. On the other hand, the surface mount technology uses the surface of the board to place the components. These are the general steps in manufacturing a printed circuit board.